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A Dandelion By Any Other Name

Dandelion
Dandelion – Subject of Prejudice

The Dandelion – what does that name mean to you? A weed? An obnoxious plant that destroys your green lawn? An invasive species? An unwelcome pest? Something to get rid of? A plant created just to take over the world? A worthless, unwanted, unloved, and unneeded plant?

As a young child, I learned to dislike dandelions from my family and friends – and later from television. It was a “given,” a universally accepted “truth,” that dandelions were “bad,” without any redeeming qualities. Yesterday, taking a picture of a dandelion for one of my greeting cards, I saw it as a part of nature that has its own beauty, but is not considered of value by us humans. I had planned to use it as an example of finding beauty among the humblest of nature’s flowers. However, researching the dandelion uncovered incredible uses and value provided by the much-maligned plant. Seeing this aspect of the dandelion gave me a respect for the plant that I had never considered before. My hope is that you, too, see the “other side” of the dandelion.

Although cursed and maligned as a weed, the dandelion is a hardy herb with a surprising number of uses and symbolism. Thought to have evolved about 30 million years ago in Eurasia and found in remains in Russia from the Pliocene period, the perennial plant’s name developed in the 15th century from the Latin dens lionis, through the French dent-de-lion, to Middle English dandelion – all meaning “lion’s tooth.” The plant has been used as food and as an herb by people throughout recorded history, with the dandelion well-known to ancient Egyptians, Greek, and Romans, and used by the Chinese for traditional medicine for over a thousand years. The plant probably migrated to North America on the Mayflower, as an invited guest due to its medicinal benefits.

The flowerhead consists of numerous small flowers and is a vital early Spring nectar source for pollinators – although most varieties of dandelion produce seeds without pollination, resulting in new plants that are genetically identical to the parent plant. Each seed is attached to fine hairs, providing a parachute for wide dispersal. Dandelions have been cultivated as a companion plant because its taproot brings up nutrients for shallow-rooted plants, and it adds minerals and nitrogen to the soil and ethylene gas which helps fruit ripen.

The entire plant is edible and healthy, and was once considered a delicacy eaten by Victorian gentry, primarily in salads and sandwiches. Dandelion flowers have been made into wine, and a tea made from its root is believed to relieve kidney and bladder issues. Dandelion leaves contain abundant vitamins and minerals, especially vitamins A, C, and K, and are good sources of calcium, potassium, iron, and manganese. The raw flowers contain high levels of polyphenols and antioxidants, and are anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic (stopping the growth of tumors such as cancer); it has been used for a variety of aches, pains, and illnesses. The dandelion was also used to make the traditional “dandelion and burdock” British soft drink, and it is one of the ingredients in root beer.

Even the prestigious WebMd website (https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-706/dandelion) devotes several webpages to the dandelion, providing the following information:

  • Dandelion is used for loss of appetite, upset stomach, intestinal gas, gallstones, joint pain, muscle aches, eczema, and bruises. Dandelion is also used to increase urine production and as a laxative to increase bowel movements. It is also used as skin toner, blood tonic, and digestive tonic. Some people use dandelion to treat infection, especially viral infections, and cancer.  In foods, dandelion is used as salad greens, and in soups, wine, and teas. The roasted root is used as a coffee substitute.
    How does it work?
  • Dandelion contains chemicals that may increase urine production and decrease swelling (inflammation).
  • Dandelion can cause allergic reactions when taken by mouth or applied to the skin of sensitive people. People who are allergic to ragweed and related plants (daisies, chrysanthemums, marigolds) are likely to be allergic to dandelion.
  • Dandelion contains significant amounts of potassium. Some “water pills” can also increase potassium levels in the body. Taking some “water pills” along with dandelion might cause too much potassium to be in the body.

Scientists in Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology in Germany have developed a type of dandelion that secretes latex of the same quality as rubber trees and is suitable for commercial production of natural rubber.

The cheerful little dandelion can grow anywhere there is a bit of soil or a crack in the sidewalk. Medieval peasants and modern spiritualists consider the dandelion a symbolic flower. Its symbolic meanings include:

  • healing from emotional pain and physical injury
  • emotional and spiritual intelligence in dealing with every kind of situation
  • warmth and power like the rising sun, due to its sunny color and the fact that the flowerhead closes at night and opens with the morning sun
  • surviving through challenges and difficulties, the ability to rise above one’s challenges, and fighting through the challenges of life and emerging victorious
  • long-lasting happiness and joy, through its cheerful color and by being of help when depression or grief makes it difficult to stay “sunny”
  • fulfilling your wish, from a long-standing folk belief that blowing the white puffball of seeds will grant you one wish – perhaps in addition to the spreading of the seeds for the addition of more dandelions

Perhaps you may be moved to gather up a small bouquet of dandelions from your yard for occasions such as:

  • Celebrating the return of summer
  • Overcoming an obstacle, especially by using your innate intelligence
  • Trying to connect with the sun and its power
  • Celebrating any event that brings joy and the energy of youth into your life

Dandelion’s message is: do not give up, even if others seem to be trying to get rid of you.

“Dandelion” may be doomed to be the despised plant that must be destroyed, eradicated, and killed. Perhaps renaming it – to Healing Plant, Lion’s Tooth, Taraxacum (its genus name), or Potassium Plant, or even considering it a vegetable and/or herb such as Healing Herb, Rubber Herb, or Potassium Vegetable – will emphasize its beneficial qualities and allow us to see its beauty, hardiness, and simplicity as a part of nature, and to remove one more judgment from our experience.

My wish for you is that, now knowing more about the abundance of benefits provided by the common dandelion, you may become a bit less judgmental about the plant – and perhaps about other little-known and/or misunderstood aspects of your life, as well. And remember the dandelion’s message: DO NOT GIVE UP.

Blessings,

Jo

P.S. If your yard is filled with dandelions, tell any critics that you are growing your own food, medicine, and a local renewable resource of latex materials to produce rubber.

 

Blog

We Are All One

Hello!

Knowing a concept and explaining the concept are totally different activities. Take the concept “we are all One with the Universe/God/Source/All-That-Is,” for example.

My concept of “we are all One with Source” is so expansive that words can’t describe it. It’s best described with feelings – such as openness, freedom, interrelationships – but even words fail when attempting to describe feelings. How can I explain it to others? Instead of trying to explain the vastness, I’ll use a basic building block with which most of us are familiar.

This exercise to explain “we are all One” works best with several people standing or sitting in a circle, holding hands; but it also works with a single person sitting in a chair, with her/his hand on an object, such as the chair arm, a table, a pillow, or a pet who doesn’t mind being still for a while. Once you are in your chosen position:

  • Close your eyes
  • Take three slow, deep breaths through your diaphragm (also called breathing through your “stomach” or abdomen)
  • Slowly shift your focus to one hand – either hand if you are holding hands in a circle, or the hand that is touching an object
  • Take a few moments thinking about the hand as a part of you – as a representation of you in this exercise
  • Shift your focus to the skin on your hand
  • Notice the tactile sensation of touching the other person’s hand or the object
  • Think of the color of your hand – what term, other than black or white, would you use to describe the color of the skin on your hand – beige, ecru, tan, brown, orange?
  • Focus on the texture of your hand’s skin – pick a term that describes the texture – is it soft, smooth, rough, calloused, weathered, tender?
  • Now, we are going deeper
  • Focus on a small dime-sized area of your hand where it is touching the other person’s hand or the object
  • Focus on the skin cells in that area – too many to count, but all working together to form a unified organ called the skin that envelops our physical bodies and has been used to define us as individuals
  • Focus on a single skin cell in that area – consider how that single skin cell is both individual/separate/unique and part of the whole that constitutes our skin – one example of “we are all One”
  • Now, we are going deeper still
  • Focus within the skin cell and visualize the molecules that combine to form that skin cell – another example of unique parts forming the whole – “we are all One”
  • Deeper, still
  • Focus within one molecule and visualize the atoms that create that molecule
  • Each atom, with its nucleus of protons and neutrons plus its electrons, is similar, yet unique
  • Rather than going deeper, we will examine this one atom further
  • Notice that the atom has no color and no texture
  • Notice how the atom occupies an area defined by the orbits of its electrons, but no physical boundary is evident
  • Notice how much space is between the nucleus and the electrons – find God/Source/All-That-Is within that space and within the nucleus and electrons
  • Stay with that image of God/Source/All-That-Is within us
  • Focus on other atoms in the vicinity of our target atom
  • At this level, there is no distinction between the atom of your hand and the atom of another person’s hand or the atom of the object held by your hand – this is the concept “we are all One”
  • Stay with that sense of Oneness – feel the expansion of your awareness – feel the connection to everything
  • Perhaps remember this sensation of Oneness during meditations or as a grounding tool
  • Be in no hurry to leave this feeling
  • At your own pace, slowly return to your atom – then to your molecule – then to your skin cell
  • Notice that the skin cell has started to introduce color, but not yet texture
  • Notice the skin on the dime-sized area of your hand – more color is added, and texture is introduced
  • Notice the skin on your hand – a definition of “you,” as distinct from “not you,” is introduced – boundaries between you and the other person’s hand or the object are established
  • As you slowly return to your body, continue to feel the interconnectedness of everything – don’t lose yourself in your body – bring that peace and knowingness with you
  • Take three slow, deep breaths to bring yourself and your knowledge back to this physical reality
  • Slowly open your eyes

Know That We Are All One

 

Blessings,

Jo

Blog

It’s About Time

(Or, Does Anybody Really Know What Time It Is?)

 

Why don’t they just leave time alone? Why change it every 6 months? And, by the way, why does the United States change the time a week later than the other countries that screw around with time? (think Halloween)

In the days before “smart” phones and computers, I had been surprised at finding the grocery store closed on Sunday morning. In another “time warp,” I was entering a meeting when people were leaving the meeting.

With the next “time warp” imminent, I tried to gain the concept of what “falling back one hour” would mean to me. Trying every visualization technique I could muster, I finally found an imaginary “sliding time line” that I could move one hour to the left (“fall back”). From that timeline, I deduced that, when I awaken Sunday morning at 6:00 a.m., it will actually be 5:00 a.m.

While I was asleep Saturday night, my cell phones and computer dutifully “fell back” one hour. Surprisingly, Sunday morning I was rested when I woke up at 6:00 a.m. Maybe I have finally figured out this “time shift” business and have pre-adjusted to it!

My celebration lasted until I saw the microwave clock, which boldly shouted out “7:00 a.m.” Now, that doesn’t make sense! I had rationally analyzed this time “thingee” (to use a technical term) from all angles – even constructing a sliding time scale in my mind. Applying the new data provided by the microwave oven, I gradually realized I had not accurately read my own sliding-time-scale creation. Yes, the top (sliding) part of the scale slides to the left (back in time – fall back), so 6:00 a.m. becomes 5:00 a.m. However, I am experiencing the time that is represented on the sliding part of the scale, not the unmoving base scale. So, yes, 6:00 a.m. is the new 5:00 a.m. when compared against the fixed base-time, but because my time is now on the sliding part of the time scale, 7:00 a.m. has become my new 6:00 a.m. – I think.

I’m still out-of-phase – an hour behind myself – or is it an hour ahead of myself? Now, I’m confused again. If I am patient, this confusion will dissolve in a week or so, and my body rhythms will have adjusted to this “new” time.

OK, enough of this time-focus. My cell phone is called a “smart” phone for a reason. If I have an appointment at a particular “time,” I will just set my cell phone alarm and let it tell me when I should act. Otherwise, time is just an illusion anyway, so I can ignore it – one big benefit of being retired.

Blessings,

Jo

 

Blog

“Go Slow”

Hello!

While attending the University of Washington in Seattle almost 50 years ago, I volunteered at an inner-city boys’ club. Located in an old two-story building in a poorer part of Seattle, the club provided a basketball court on the first floor. I oversaw the quieter games, like jigsaw puzzles, on the second floor.

At that time, my hair was long and light brown, almost blonde. Gradually, a few of the shy boys would call me “Princess” because my hair was unusual to them and reminded them of fairy tales they may have seen or heard about. We created a fantasy world where they could be anything they wanted – knights, kings, princes, etc. We laughed and had great fun – bringing out the Little Kid in each of us.

One time, the club manager admonished us for making too much noise. The kids – and I – immediately shut down; all our Little Kids went into hiding. After the manager left, I gathered the kids and explained that we were still kings, knights, princes, and a princess, but we were in the Land of Quiet. This was our special place that no one else knew about because we kept it secret by being quiet. Slowly, the light within each child – and myself – returned and our Little Kids played, having even more fun because no one knew about our secret fantasy world.

As I was walking to the bus stop one evening, a boy, perhaps 12 years old, started walking with me. Recognizing him as the “bad kid” who had been banned from the boys’ club because he smoked, carried knives and other weapons, and got into trouble with others, I smiled at him and did not find any fear of him within me.

As I walked on the sidewalk, the boy walked on the tops of the stone “fences” that marked the boundaries of each row house’s front “yard.” When his route was longer than mine, he asked me to “Go Slow” so we could keep pace with each other. That night, I saw a completely different child – one who apparently was on his own in this world, coping as best he could, and at that point only wanting someone to “Go Slow” so he could be with them. I only met him once, but that encounter has stayed with me for almost 50 years. I often wonder what happened to him – did he get the help he sought?

Obviously, encounters are not always that simple – but it does start with acknowledging that we all are One with the Universe, no exceptions. From there, we see the Soul/Spirit/Source within everyone we meet by looking beyond the body-suit and ignoring the judgment of others. We let our gut reaction – rather than the brain linked to the cultural biases to which we have been exposed – determine our safety at that moment. Recognize the difference between your gut thoughts, feelings, and warnings and those that are part of group consciousness perpetuated by mistrust and fear. Do you own thinking, unswayed by the biases, prejudices, and judgments of others.

There are many ways to cope with the life you are given. Judgments arise over the slightest deviation from the social standard of “normal” or “proper” behavior. How many other people have been judged for their chosen way of coping? How many difficult lives could have been turned around by someone taking the time to “Go Slow” and seeing the Little Kid within them?

My wish for you is that someone will choose to “Go Slow” when you need it – and that you will choose to “Go Slow” for another when he/she needs it. We are all One with the Universe, and helping others is helping ourselves as well.

Blessings,

Jo

 

Blog

Not Wanting to Get Your Goat

Hello!

Familiar phrases often leap out of my mouth without my giving them much thought. When something doesn’t turn out the way it was advertised, I call it a “pig in a poke,” never concerning myself as to how a pig became the symbol of disappointment or what a “poke” was – until today. Uttering “pig in a poke” this morning sent me on an enlightening journey through the oddities of the English language.

“Pig in a poke” means foolishly buying something without looking at it first. This idiom is derived from a Late Middle Ages scam where unscrupulous sellers would say there was a pig in the cloth bag (called a “poke” back then), when it actually was a cat or dog – which weren’t as good to eat or as valuable as a pig. People who paid pig prices but didn’t look in the poke to make sure it truly was a pig, were often disappointed and angry with the seller (who was long-gone by that time). Because it was common practice to put a small pig (piglet) in a cloth sack to sell, the only way to tell the honest sellers from the scammers was to look in the poke, thus leading to the full phrase “don’t buy a pig in a poke.” By the 1800s it had become common law that a buyer was given the right to look in the bag before purchase. Today, we use the phrase “caveat emptor,” Latin for “buyer beware,” to warn against being foolish enough to be taken in by the “pig in a poke” scam.

 

Pigs aren’t the only animals to become immortalized in phrases passed down through the generations. Horses have their own phrases, such as “horse-sense” and “straight from the horse’s mouth.” “Horse-sense” usually refers to a person exhibiting a good dose of common sense, even if the person is not highly educated. I owned a horse once – a temperamental, often flighty, mare named “Marbles” (as in “lost hers”), and common-sense was not a term I would associate with that horse. Scatterbrained, perhaps, but not high on the common-sense scale. Dolphins are intelligent, dogs are smart, and a plethora of other animals have significantly more common sense than that horse.

Researching “horse-sense” was enlightening. Medieval England, where the horse provided an important service to the people, was the source of many expressions involving horses. The horse was considered hefty, coarse, and often vulgar back then. For example, the rural language applied “horse” to plants that were larger and rougher than others, thus resulting in “horse-daisy” (currently called Ox-eye Daisy in an equine-to-bovine transformation) and “horse-radish” (now usually written as one word, horseradish, for the spicy hot root that resembles a radish). Similarly, “horse-sense” became associated with an unsophisticated, country-bumpkin kind of common sense. Rather than being coined in the Wild West of the United States, “horse-sense” was born near the Devon, England, town called “Westward Ho!” (the only town in England that includes an exclamation point in its name). As stated on the website https://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings:

“The English romantic novelist Evelyn Malcolm wrote a string of novels in the 19th century, firmly set in Daphne du Maurier West Country bodice-ripping territory. One of these was Forsaken; Love’s Battle for Heart, published in The London Story Paper, January 1805, which includes a reference to a horny-handed son of the soil: ‘Lud, Bill Perkins has horse sense.’”

Or, perhaps, W.C. Fields said it best: “Horse sense is the thing a horse has which keeps it from betting on people.” Source: https://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings

 

Having clarified that, let’s move to the meaning and history of “straight from the horse’s mouth,” a 20th century idiom. This phrase, meaning “from the highest authority” or “from one who knows,” is said to have originated with horse racing enthusiasts. Each bettor tries to get the best information on the horses running in the next race, and the only source closer to the horses than the stable hands and trainers are the horses themselves. Another, less popular, theory involves looking into a horse’s mouth to determine its age, health, and value to potential buyers. I prefer this latter theory, because it leads directly to another idiom, “don’t look a gift horse in the mouth.”

 

“As the crow flies” is an interesting phrase. Obviously, the idiom “as the crow flies” means in a straight, direct line from Point A to Point B. Why choose a crow? Does a crow really fly straighter than an eagle? I’ve watched crows fly, and they don’t seem to fly straight or all that far – they tend to fly in large circles and stay relatively close to the neighborhood in which they were born, never migrating like other birds. So why measure distance between towns, for example, using crow flight? Geese fly further than crows – “as the goose flies” makes more sense. Measuring distance to Capistrano would be “as the swallow flies.” Why not use a bird that actually flies great distances between here and there?

The earliest know use of the phrase “as the crow flies” was in 1767, and “crow road” has been used in Scotland to denote the shortest, most direct route. Attempting to provide an historical context to the idiom, a fascinating theory was posited indicating that, before ship navigation equipment, crows were carried on ships and released when the captain wanted to find land – given the crow’s innate ability to fly directly toward land. The explanation is further enhanced to state that the crows were kept in a cage at the top of the mast – the “crow’s nest.” Excitement at finally identifying the source of another idiom, “crow’s nest,” was soon deflated, however, when “evidence” from the 19th century indicated a land-based explanation. The “crow’s nest,” as explained, was simply called that because of its shape and position, but was only used as a lookout. The “evidence” denouncing the “crow’s nest” story was from the late 1700s, stating that crows, being intelligent animals, fly directly to a food source. Well, that would imply that other birds, not being as intelligent as the crow, would, upon detecting a food source, take a random, roundabout flight pattern to said food source. Not a convincing explanation to me. I prefer the crows in a cage at the top of the “crow’s nest” theory.

 

Dogs have their fair share of phrases, such as: “dog day afternoon” (even having a 1975 movie named after it) and the unpleasant “dog eat dog world.” Interestingly, “dog days” has nothing to do with dogs. Dating back to 1398, “dog days” refers to the extremely hot days during July and August, coinciding with the appearance of Sirius (the Dog Star) in the same part of the sky as the Sun. Sirius garnered the name “Dog Star” as the largest and brightest star in the Canis Major constellation, which follows behind the Orion constellation in the night sky, like a faithful companion. In fact, Orion’s Belt points directly to Sirius. As the brightest star in the night sky, Greeks thought Sirius brought extra heat to Earth, causing fever, lethargy, and thunderstorms.

 

Ok, so what about the phrase, “dog eat dog world”? The phrase refers to any situation where there is such fierce competition that people are willing to hurt each other to triumph. But, do dogs really eat other dogs? It has been stated that a hungry dog will eat another dog – but that is probably true of most, if not all, carnivores, including humans (think Donner Party). So, why pick on the dog? A fascinating explanation of “why a dog?” was presented: There is a Latin phrase, which translates to “dogs do not eat dogs” which was common in mid-16th century English. According to this theory, “dog eat dog” implies that only people driven by such competitive survival instincts will resort to cannibalistic behavior beneath that of dogs. Now, that I could accept as a plausible explanation, having witnessed ruthless (lacking “ruth” or compassion) actions of others driven by intense competition to overpower everyone else.

 

Cats aren’t immune from becoming icons of their own somewhat gruesome phrases: “cat got your tongue” and “look like something the cat drug in,” plus “letting the cat out of the bag.”

Let’s start with “cat got your tongue?” or its fuller form “Has the cat got your tongue?” as that is something I had been told frequently as a child – even though we didn’t have a cat, and my tongue remained fully intact in my closed mouth. Finally considered archaic and totally out-of-fashion, it was popular in the 1960s and 1970s. In those days, children were faced with either being too talkative – “children should be seen but not heard” – or not talking at all – “has the cat got your tongue?” Some attribute this idiom to pure invention or light-hearted imagery directed at children. A few consider the idiom a reference to a witch’s cat, which would steal and/or eat the tongue of a person to keep that person from talking. Another gruesome theory states that, in ancient Egypt, liars’ tongues were cut out and fed to the cats. I’m favoring the light-hearted imagery theory.

 

Now to the idiom that raises my proper English hackles: “look like something the cat drug in.” Yes, I know it means that the target looks messy, bedraggled, filthy, or just plain unwanted in that particular situation. And, yes, I know it is most likely derived from the dead animals that cats proudly share with their “staff” (us humans) to demonstrate their prowess – or to thank said “staff” for doing something that garners the cat’s approval. What bothers me about this idiom is the use of the word “drug” for the past tense of “drag” instead of the proper “dragged.” Understanding that the person uttering that particular idiom is attempting to display distain at the presence of the target, to me, using the word “drug” brings the person down to the level of the target, thus totally nullifying the effectiveness of the slam – and potentially even resulting in the tables being turned on the person by the target ridiculing the person’s misuse of the English language.

 

“Letting the cat out of the bag” appears to have ties all the way back to 1530, to “pig in a poke,” addressed earlier in this blog. If a potential buyer of a “pig in a poke” actually opens the bag to see what is inside, the person may be surprised to find he/she has “let the cat out of the bag,” revealing the previously-hidden deception or secret.

 

Although I could continue through the entire animal kingdom in this manner, in the interest of brevity – and to answer the question you may have been eager to ask since reading the blog title – I shall close with a phrase that made no sense to me until I researched it: “get your goat.” Having not a clue as to the meaning of the idiom, I initially titled this blog “Get Your Goat.” Imagine my dismay when I discovered that this phrase means making someone annoyed or angry. Certainly not wanting to offend anyone reading this blog, I immediately changed the title to “Not Wanting to Get Your Goat.”

Grateful for research allaying a potentially devastating faux pas, I searched further for the source of this strange idiom. One popular explanation is derived in 1909 from horse racing, where goats were used to calm race horses. A rival horse owner, wanting a particular horse to lose a race, would remove (or “get”) the goat from the horse’s stable, causing the horse to become upset and run poorly. Another interesting theory comes from the 1904 book, Life in Sing Sing, in which a “goat” is the slang term for anger. With this theory, “get your goat” is slang for “get you angry.” Yet another theory suggests that “goat” is a metaphor for a state of peace which, when removed, leads to anger. A similar theory to the goat as a stablemate to a race horse to keep it calm so it runs better, states that a goat is housed with cows to calm the cows, so they produce more milk. Some dastardly person, intent on reducing the milk production of those cows, would “get the goat” away from the cows. This theory is difficult for me to embrace, because – although I can see a bettor wanting a particular race horse to do badly for financial reasons – I cannot see how a nasty person would benefit from reducing the milk output from some cows (presumably not his/her own).

 

I sincerely hope you have been enlightened by the results of my lengthy research into animal-related idioms. My actual research became lengthy primarily due to the serendipitous discovery of dozens of fascinating phrases attracting my attention. Too numerous to include in this blog (but not safe from becoming future blog material), I will not list them here. However, if you have a day or two devoid of pressing commitments, I highly recommend browsing through https://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings, a delightful website listing, in alphabetical order, every idiom known to the website curators. You, too, may find the joy of research.

 

May your goat of peace remain with you always.

 

Blessings,

Jo

 

P.S.:  I would love to hear your favorite phrases and the history behind them. Please leave me a comment below. Thank you!

 

 

 

Sources:

https://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings

Wikipedia

http://goatberries.com/2011/03/the-origins-of-get-your-goat/

https://www.grammarly.com/blog/14-expressions-with-crazy-origins-that-you-would-never-have-guessed/

https://www.talkenglish.com/lessondetails.aspx?ALID=1025

https://www.dictionary.com/browse

https://idioms.thefreedictionary.com

https://www.sciencefocus.com/nature

https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080531083459AAzWHUU&guccounter=1